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100 років тому

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/past-six-days/2017-01-02/register/notorious-rasputin-dead-6nd0bw9lz

JANUARY 2, 1917

Notorious Rasputin dead

The body of the notorious monk Rasputin was found on the bank of one of the branches of the Neva this morning. An inquiry has been opened. Reuter.

Gregory Rasputin, the peasant “fakir”, whose death has been previously reported on more than one occasion, exercised for several years a sinister influence in Russia. He was a favourite at Court, and enjoyed the patronage of the Empress, who is believed to have attributed the birth of the Tsarevitch to his intercession. The son of a small farmer at Tobolsk, Siberia, he lived the life of a peasant till he was about 30, when he was seized with a quasi-religious mania, and became a lay brother, journeying from monastery to monastery. He came to Petrograd about 1900, and, though he aroused the strong opposition of the Church, he speedily gained a great reputation in society and at Court. The Bishops sought his banishment, but in vain, and criticism of his actions was forbidden by the censorship.

Handsome, with long reddish hair and beard, broad shouldered, vigorous and erect, Rasputin had an extraordinary personality, and his so-called religious salons at Petrograd were frequented by all sorts and conditions of people, from generals to beggars. Of his influence over women he made no secret, and two or three years ago in the columns of the Novoe Vremya he described in unblushing detail the amazing attentions he had extorted from and paid to women of all classes.

His actions gave rise to much scandal, and he was once exiled to his native Tobolsk. Protected by the highest personages he was allowed to return in 1914. In July of that year he was stabbed in the street by a peasant woman, who declared that she wished to avenge one of Rasputin’s girl victims. Politically he was used by the Reactionaries to further their ends, and there is no instance of his interference in public affairs with any regard to national interests.


● The Germans announced yesterday a success in the Dobrudja. They said that “the Russian bridgehead position to the east of Macin” had been “considerably narrowed”, and claimed to have taken 1,000 prisoners, four cannon, and eight machine-guns.


http://www.thetimes.co.uk/past-six-days/2017-01-03/register/rasputin-suspicion-of-murder-z88m75wrc

JANUARY 3, 1917

Rasputin: suspicion of murder

Telegrams received from Petrograd allege that the notorious monk Rasputin, whose body has just been recovered from the Neva, was murdered. The messages so far to hand from our Petrograd Correspondent make no direct reference to this and other material points. His narrative must therefore be regarded as still incomplete.

From our own correspondent, Petrograd, Jan 1. The body of Rasputin was recovered by divers from the bottom of an ice-hole in the Neva near Petrovsky Bridge, which crosses one of the lesser arms of the river north of the city.

According to this morning’s newspapers, the tragedy to which this discovery points appears to have been enacted on Saturday morning at the Yussupoff Palace, on the Moika Canal, but none of the names of the participants are mentioned. It was early on Saturday morning that a mysterious motor-car is reported to have been seen on Petrovsky Island. The police thereupon examined the river near Petrovsky Bridge and discovered a newly cut ice-hole, whence stretched human footprints in various directions. In the snow near the bank was found a man’s golosh, stained with suspicious marks. Divers were requisitioned to examine the bottom of the river, with the result that the body of Rasputin was discovered. According to today’s accounts, the police found traces of blood in the snow in the Palace garden. On demanding an explanation from the servants, the police were informed that a mad dog had just been shot. In corroboration of this statement the dead body of a dog was produced. The animal’s body and a lump of blood-stained snow were removed for examination. It is suggested that the fact that the garden of the Yussupoff Palace runs back from the Moika front as far as the Ofitserskaia street may have some bearing on the question as to how the victim’s body was removed. Young Prince Yussupoff, who, after the events of this week-end, had left Petrograd for his Crimean estates, has returned to the capital. Paris, Jan 2. The Journal, recalling Rasputin’s great influence at the Court, says: Germany knew how to make use of him. The Germanophile Stuermer benefited from this — perhaps more than is believed. The Grand Duke Nicholas had to suffer from it. We will not say more.



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100 років тому - Румунія

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RUSSIAN ARTILLERY

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PEASANTS IN A MARKET TOWN OF THE DOBRUDJA

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AUSTRIAN DONKEY CONVOY IN ' THE CARPATHIANS

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RUMANIAN CONVOY IN BUKAREST SHORTLY BEFORE ITS CAPTURE

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/british-nurses-in-the-dobrudja-s3mwpk0gc

British nurses in the Dobrudja

Sometimes when we arrive at the hospital and the wounded are carried out, it is found that many are dead, and often the stretcher, the ambulance, and the men are entirely covered with blood.

November 21, 1916

Thrilling adventures in the Rumanian retreat in the Dobrudja are narrated by Miss Monfries, who has been serving as motor-driver and interpreter with the London unit (LSWS) of the Scottish Women’s Hospital in the Balkans, and is at present home on leave.

When the retreat began on October 22 some members of the unit were working at an advanced point, and they fell back to the hospital at Medgidia. Thirty-six hours later orders were received to evacuate the hospital. Equipment, which had taken six days to unpack, had to be packed in four hours, and in addition wounded soldiers who kept pouring in, had to receive attention. While the work was in progress news came that the line might after all be held, and the evacuation was then postponed. When a renewed order for speedy departure arrived the staff decided to chance things and to hang on during the night, but shells were falling and eventually they had to go.

Between the time of being told to pack up and the actual departure 350 wounded men were received and dealt with. Sixty bullock carts had been promised to transport the hospital equipment, but only five arrived and it was with difficulty that a few additional carts were obtained. By making several journeys, the unit got its material to the station, but by this time all the civilians and the Rumanian and Russian Headquarters Staff had gone, and Medgidia was in flames.

The journey to Tchernavoda had to be made in trucks, which also carried wounded, who had only had a first field dressing of their injuries. No food was to be had on the journey, and the party were without anything to eat for 36 hours. Two nights and the greater part of another day were occupied in covering a distance which normally takes five hours. Bombs fell near the railway during the journey and all the villages were burning.

The capture of the train several times appeared certain, but eventually the people got through safely. Shorty after Tchernavoda had been reached the train started without warning to cross the Danube bridge. The approach of two hostile aeroplanes had been observed and apparently the bridge was the objective of the airmen. The train crossed without disaster, but bombs were dropped all around and two slightly damaged the bridge.




Miss Monfries and her companions afterwards got through to Galats and finally to Odessa. A section of the unit which travelled by road was five days and five nights in completing the journey The road was narrow, deep in mud, and crowded with refugees and their farm stock The unit is now at Odessa refitting, and funds are required to renew the equipment. Before the retreat Miss Monfries was in Bukarest and Constanza.

AMBULANCE WORK WITH RUMANIANS. A woman motor driver on the Rumanian front writes: Yesterday --- and I went to a town 30 miles away, drove the ambulance there, and were caught in an air raid - a few casualties and several dead horses. Today we had some time off, so were given two horses by Serbian officers and went for a long gallop astride. We have discarded skirts and live in riding breeches, blouse, tunic, boots, and putties; no hat and short hair is so comfortable.

It is wonderful how calmly everyone takes the fighting. Sometimes when we arrive at the hospital and the wounded are carried out, it is found that many are dead, and often the stretcher, the ambulance, and the men are entirely covered with blood. The awful part is to have to listen to the groans behind you every time the car bumps, and the ground is so bad, always great holes in the road. We drive very slowly, but still there are some jars. Often we know that haemorrhage starts after we leave the dressing station, but we must not stop - just get on as quickly as possible to our hospital.

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100 Years Ago - East Africa

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Captain Selous and his company of the Royal Fusiliers

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CROSSING A RIVER

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Camelry in German East Africa

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A BIVOUAC IN GERMAN EAST AFRICA

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/nearing-the-end-in-east-africa-8g7p890lz

Nearing the End in East Africa

The enemy will soon be standing on the sections of the Central Railway nearest the coast, but they cannot stay there long, for the toils are closing round them, and their only possible avenue of escape is southwards

August 15, 1916

The campaign in German East Africa is entering its final stages, though it may yet take some time to round up the main German forces. They recently concentrated afresh in the Nguru Hills, about eighty miles from the coast opposite Zanzibar. They have now been driven southwards towards the Central Railway, and their only conceivable line of ultimate retreat is to march parallel with the coast towards Portuguese East Africa. Even then they will be in danger from General Northey’s columns, which should be on their flank. The later series of movements which are gradually confining the Germans and their native troops into one area may be said to have begun with the operations of Belgian forces, under General Tombeur, between Lake Tanganyika and Victoria Nyanza.

Nothing in the African campaign has been more inspiriting than the triumphant march of these Belgian columns, before whom the Germans are fleeing headlong, a happy augury of the future course of events in Europe. The Belgians reached two points on Lake Victoria on June 27, while on July 14 a South African force under Brigadier-General Sir C Crewe landed at Mwanza, at the southern end of the lake. Belgians and British combined to drive the enemy out of all the north-western districts of the country, and the remnants of the enemy forces in this area were herded back upon Tabora, an important town on the Central Railway. By August 3 the Belgians had taken Ujiji, on Lake Tanganyika, and Kigoma, the lake terminus of the railway, and they sank the last and biggest of the German lake gunboats. Rhodesian forces had already seized Bismarckburg and other ports, and the whole of Lake Tanganyika is now in Allied hands. The same may be said of Lake Victoria.

General Smuts had occupied the northern coast port of Tanga on July 7, and had thus retrieved the unhappy repulse at that spot at the end of 1914. He then began to turn his attention to the main German forces, which had retreated to the Nguru Hills. Meanwhile, General Deventer began to advance with three columns from Kondoa Irangi towards the Central Railway. One of his columns reached the station of Dodoma on July 29, and the other columns respectively captured Kilimatindo and Kikombo directly afterwards. Simultaneously a British naval force seized the port of Sadani, on the mainland opposite Zanzibar.

The whole of these widely separated operations seem to have been admirably timed, and to have gone like clockwork. General Northey, who had crossed the German frontier from Rhodesia and Nyasaland on May 25, was at the same time moving northwards towards the railway, and was nearing Iringa. Then came the events announced yesterday. General Smuts struck southwards from the direction of Handeni with his principal forces, and drove the main body of the enemy from the Nguru Hills. General van Deventer, who is holding over 100 miles of the Central Railway, moved down the line towards the sea. General Northey is coming up from the south, though he has the longest distance to traverse.

The enemy will soon be standing on the sections of the Central Railway nearest the coast, but they cannot stay there long, for the toils are closing round them, and their only possible avenue of escape is southwards. This arduous tropical warfare, though beset with transport difficulties, is proceeding so admirably that we may be allowed to express a hope that the gallant troops conducting it will be seen before many months are over on the battlefields of France.
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Розсмикані думки: мова

Українська є моєю першою мовою – тому, що нею розмовляли в нашій сім’ї. І мій батько, і мама, і бабусі. Дідусів я не знав, вони обидва загинули на війні, і я якось вважав, що це начебто звичний стан речей (я колись, малий зовсім, спитав у батька – сам я не пам’ятаю цього, знаю лише з його слів – «Папа, а чому ми всі живемо у одній кімнаті, та ще й з Марьєю Івановною (ми жили в двокімнатній комуналці), а в (наших хороших знайомих) трикімнатна квартира?»; батько відповів, що «у тебе обидва діда загинули на війні, а у них ні», і двірничка, що почула це, вилаяла батька, що, мовляв, хіба ж можна так розмовляти з рибйонком) – так от, діди теж розмовляли українською.

Як був малий, то я навряд чи віддавав собі звіт, що от є українська, а от російська. Знав, звичайно, що по телевізору є Перша програма, де йде «Вечерняя сказка» (чи як вона тоді називалася), і є Друга пограма, по якій іде «Надобраніч, діти» (із дідусем Панасом в тому числі). У дитячому садочку розмовляли російською, то ж і я навчився, не особливо напружуючися – діти взагалі швидко вчаться. Але вдома – вдома це українська. Так воно змалечку й встановилося, українська для домашнього вжитку, російська назовні, для публічного. Хоча пам’ятаю, як прибиральницю в дитсадку дуже, страшенно втяшило, як я їй розказував, що «у бабусі серденько болить» (ну як я від неї почув, так і ретранслював – як я зараз розумію, тій дівчині (молодій – хоча для мене тоді вона, як і всі дорослі, була просто «дорослого віку») посто сподобалося, що «городська» дитина – а знає її рідну говірку.

А як інакше, бо до того, як мене віддали в дитсадок, гляділа мене бабуся Наця, що хоч і могла в суржик (бо ж вдова офіцера – і якби дід Іван не загинув капітаном у 1941 році, а дослужився б хай не до генерала, а до полковника – то напрактикувалася б бабуся й російською по різним гарнізонам (а от цікаво, в дідовій 2-й дивізії Червоного козацтва яка була командна мова?)), але вдома на нього не переходила. От не треба їй було нікому доказувати, що вона «городська». І мамі не треба було, і батькові – тим більше що вони цілком добре знали російську, а як інакше після університета?

Хоча акцент у мене був, коли я говорив російською, і це я знаю абсолютно точно. Бо коли в першому класі ми вчили дзвінкі й глухі приголосні, то як треба було на уроці російської підібрати глуху пару до Г (Ґ тобто) – в мене виходило лише Х, і коли Паола Йосипівна, моя перша вчителька, сказала, що ні, правильно К, я добре пам’ятаю відчуття когнітивного дисонансу – ну як ще К, коли Х! Г – Х, просто ж усе начебто. Ну запам’ятав і взяв до уваги на майбутнє.

Єслічо, я в курсі, що мій особистий досвід (як в принципі будь-який індивідуальний досвід) є нетиповим. Що мені пощастило навчатися у хороших школах, де практично не було поколів із якістю викладання, і де не було для абсолютної більшості однокласників проблем із мотивацією до навчання. Українська мова й література не була (незважаючи на те, що школа була з російською мовою викладання) віднесена до другорядних та неважливих предметів, і дуже мало хто був звільнений від її вивчення (лише ті, хто переїхали з місць, де не було української в шкільних програмах – а щоб, як кажуть, хтось був звільнений «за станом здоров’я», то реально я з таким не стикався ні разу, але охоче вірю, що десь могло бути)

Я до чого веду? Всі однокласники володіли практично однаково добре і російською, й українською, і якби хтось сказав, що не розуміє української, то його б точно не зрозуміли та поставили б під сумнів його ментальні здібності. Ні в кого не було проблем обговорювати на уроках української мови чи літератури (у старших класах була лише література – власне, курс історії літератури з невеликими домішками літературознавства; у 9 класі – література післяшевченкового періоду, у 10 класі – радянського; оскільки весь 9 клас був фактично присвячений творам про життя селян (ну хіба що за винятком Франка із його Бориславом, що сміється) – гарний контрапункт, до речі, до «панської» літератури з курсу російської літератури – то сяк-так ми, хоч і міські діти, щось собі уявляли про життя нашого села) – а ті, хто вчився в школах з українською мовою викладання (я в такій був з 4 по 6 клас) то могли вільно говорити й на теми точних, природничих та суспільних наук. При тому я б не сказав, що перехід до практично виключно російськомовної (за деякими екзотичними винятками) вищої освіти становив якісь труднощі.

Коротше, моє оточення було все функціонально двомовним, при чому обидві мови мало на рівні вищому за побутове спілкування. І якщо між друзями я говорив виключно російською, то хіба що через звичку. До речі, було цікаво реалізовувати, наскільки багато з них були україномовними вдома – знову ж таки, українська для власногоб персонального, світу, російська для назовні. При цьому я неодноразово стикався з випадками, коли інші ровесники ставилися до української мови зневажливо. У 80-ті досить часто почали переводити середні школи з української мови викладання на російську – «за вимогами батьків». Не знаю, чи такі вимоги були, чи це таке було стандартне формулювання – але чомусь не пригадую у знайомих мені українських школах масового невдоволення мовою навчання

Хоча всім було зрозуміло, що українська має дуже-дуже сильно другорядний статус, і якби вона раптом зникла, «нагорі» не плакали б за нею. І це мені й багатьом іншим не подобалося, просто мабуть тому, що наша мова була частиною нашої ідентичності. У всякому разі, якщо в дитячому садку ми ще гралися «в войну» за «рускіх», то в середній школі чітко розрізняли російське й радянське. Ми були частиною одного (вимушено, бо куди дітися), але не іншого. І нам на підсвідомому рівні було зрозуміло, що можна не бути росіянином навіть розмовляючи російською мовою.

100 Years Ago - Christmas Eve

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/edition/register/the-hope-of-bethlehem-nk3kcmqxf

december 23, 1916

The hope of Bethlehem

There is a wistful tone in our voices as we sing the Christmas songs this year; we cannot forget, and we ought not to forget, amid what scenes this loveliest of festivals is kept this year.

When two years ago we came to the first Christmas of the war, we had to adapt ourselves to new conditions; the new has become familiar now, and it requires a deliberate effort of memory to return to the old Christmas; but it lives, where all the ancient joys and hopes of the world live, in the heart of the little child. And there is hope still to be received in Bethlehem. When the story of 1916 has to be learned by school-boys in coming days, perhaps they will think first, not of the war but of some mighty personality, at present helpless in its mother’s arms.

The hope which springs from Bethlehem has passed through many phases. The poets loved in other days to dwell upon the mystery of the Incarnation, and upon the startling contrast between the outward scene and the Divine glory. But there came a time when such metaphysical claims left men cold; upon the modern heart there came a great compassion for humanity, and with that a recoil from the faith which delighted in Divine mysteries. Christmas became the festival that hallowed childhood and motherhood, and promised an era of goodwill and peace. It was the Christmas of Charles Dickens, whose generous spirit responded to all the hopes of humanity.

But there are signs of a return to the Divine Mysteries. The strange adoring language of the saints awakens an echo in the hearts of many today, who draw near to the Manger not to adore childhood and motherhood, but to worship in that Babe the incarnate Son of God.

The Church, harassed by failure, returns at Christmas not to a heavenly scene, as a refuge for exiles from a doomed world, but to a vision of this world redeemed. This earth is where man’s doubts find their play, and it is of this earth they ask, “Is there any hope?” In such an hour Advent comes with its promise. No despair is permitted. So much has been done, so much has been sunk in this divine enterprise, that it cannot be abandoned. And if hope is low there are ways, long and steep and thorny, but still ways, that can be trod to the Manger. Adeste fideles.

100 Years Ago

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http://www.thetimes.co.uk/edition/register/president-wilson-and-peace-sshggnc88

december 22, 1916


President Wilson and peace

President Wilson has sent to all the belligerent Powers a lengthy Note, which invites them to state their peace terms. We do not question the sincerity of his statement that the suggestion is made “in the most friendly spirit”, but we cannot escape some misgivings as to whether his aspiration that this spirit “may be understood by all concerned” will be everywhere fulfilled.

Mr Wilson himself admits that he finds the appearance of his “suggestion” immediately after the German “overtures” somewhat embarrassing. It is, he sees, open to misconstruction, and we are afraid that it may he misconstrued in more quarters than one. The Central Powers, the Bulgarians, and the Turks will presumably welcome it. The Prime Ministers of England, France, Italy, and Russia have declared in the plainest and the most vigorous terms that this course is utterly inadmissible.

Only yesterday the American newspapers gave a wholehearted approval to Mr Lloyd George’s description of the conflicting objects pursued by the two groups of belligerents. Mr Wilson, by some curious process of thought, has reached the conclusion that they are “virtually the same”. The same? We should have supposed that by this time the irreconcilable conflict between the objects of the Allies and the Central Powers was plain to all mankind. Our aims have never changed from the day when Germany began hacking her way through neutral Belgium. We share to the full Mr Wilson’s humanitarian feelings; we are even fighting for them. But, while we are fighting for peace, we are determined that it shall be a just and lasting peace, and we see no hope of such a peace until Prussian “militarism” has been laid low on the field of battle. The enemy are posing as victorious aggressors in the very document in which they condescendingly summon the Allies to negotiation. To negotiate under such conditions would be a crime against our dead and against future generations. To parley with wrong while it arrogantly claims to be victorious would be to confess the failure of democracy. We trust that Mr Wilson’s pleading will be treated by all the Allies with the civility which it deserves, but it will not stay the hand of any one of them in vindicating the liberty of the nations.

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100 Years Ago

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ADMIRAL DARTIGE DU FOURNET AND HIS STAFF

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ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUN ON BOARD THE "WALDECK-ROUSSEAU."

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INTERIOR OF A FRENCH SUBMARINE. The Commander is at the periscope, the men are at their posts.

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GUNNERS OF THE "JAUREGUIBERRY."

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/the-fight-for-the-narrows-pv9f86rpt

The Fight for the Narrows

The squadron of French battleships engaged the principal forts at close range, and the Admiralty account says that they attacked “in the most brilliant fashion”

March 22, 1915


The first sustained attempt to overcome the defences in the Narrows of the Dardanelles resulted in serious though not unexpected losses, and we must be prepared to lose still more ships before our object is completely achieved. The operation at the Dardanelles resembles a game of draughts or chess in this respect, that a good many pieces may disappear from the board before the game is won. The price will be high, but, as we have repeatedly urged, there will be no cheap victories in this war. We are very far from the days of the Battle of Omdurman, where the British lost three officers and 25 men killed, and had casualties amounting in all to 175, while the Dervishes indisputably lost 9,700 killed and between 10,000 and 15,000 wounded. We are now engaged upon an infinitely graver business, and must not be surprised if for every success a heavy toll is taken.

The forcing of the Dardanelles is perhaps the most formidable operation ever undertaken in naval warfare. It could not succeed without military aid, for which provision has been made. If a first-class military and naval Power held the Straits, and had put all its resources into the task of defending them, they would probably never be forced at all by direct attack. The enterprise is only permissible because, even with German aid and advice, the Turks have not in the past made the fullest possible use of their opportunities along this narrow channel.

The Allies are prepared to pay a price which may, perhaps, prove terrific, because the advantages to be gained by the subjugation of Constantinople are immeasurable. They have to face the odds against them in precisely the same spirit as that in which the dauntless American Admiral Farragut ran the gauntlet of the forts in Mobile Bay. Farragut said: “I calculate thus: The chances are that I shall lose some of my vessels by torpedoes or the guns of the enemy, but with some of my fleet afloat I shall eventually be successful. I cannot lose all. I will attack, regardless of consequences, and never turn back.”

The Admirals at the entrance to the Dardanelles must proceed by slower stages, but their action must rest upon a similar calculation. We may be confident that the attack will be steadily pressed, no matter what it costs, until the Turks, together with the Germans who have lashed them into resistance, are driven from Constantinople. Moreover, it must be remembered that there are other factors in the operation which are only now coming into play. The most satisfactory feature of Thursday’s encounter is that no ship appears to have been lost through gunfire. It is true that the Inflexible, the only Dreadnought which suffered damage, received an awkward blow from a shell which has put her out of action for a time; but the three battleships which were lost were all sunk by mines. We can face the loss of the Irresistible and the Ocean with the greater composure since we know that “practically the whole of the crews” is saved. We are told today that our total casualties - killed, wounded, and missing - only amount to sixty-one.

The fate of the French battleship Bouvet was far more tragic, because her magazine seems to have exploded when she was struck by a mine, and only sixty-four of her crew were rescued. Let us express the deepest sympathy with our gallant Ally, though we are confident that the French nation itself will chiefly reflect with pride that the French Navy had the signal honour of leading the attack against the Narrows. The squadron of French battleships engaged the principal forts at close range, and the Admiralty account says that they attacked “in the most brilliant fashion.”




Admiral de Robeck adds a further tribute to their “splendid behaviour” this morning. The French Navy has done much solid patient work in the last few months, always with efficiency and success. It has dominated the Austrian Navy precisely as the Grand Fleet has dominated the German Navy, and it has also taken a very large share in those laborious tasks of escort duty and pursuit in the outer seas, of which we have heard very little save the occasional results.

The British and French Admiralties are absolutely united in their determination with regard to the Dardanelles. They gave their answer instantly to the Turkish successes on Thursday. The three lost battleships have already been replaced. The strength of the Allied naval forces in the Aegean is as great as ever - and that without any diminution of our strength in the North Sea and the Adriatic. The forts at the Narrows do not represent the only difficulty which the Allies have to face, though they are by far the greatest obstacle. The land approaches to the Straits, particularly on the Asiatic side, will not at first be easy to hold even when they pass fully into our possession. There will be dangers to our warships all through the Sea of Marmara. The problem of effectively occupying so great and scattered a city as Constantinople is by no means simple in its initial stages. We may be certain that these questions have all been foreseen, and that due preparation has been made for meeting them. The drama of Stamboul is not yet fully unfolded. however great and manifold the difficulties, they will in due course be overcome.

Before the battle of Copenhagen, which had certain points of resemblance to the present perilous attack, Nelson wrote to Sir Hyde Parker: “Never did our country depend so much on the success of our Fleet as on this.” We need not make quite so exalted a declaration about the Dardanelles operation, but it should be clear that it is of fundamental importance to our cause.

People are sometimes inclined to ask what is the relation between the Dardanelles and the fronts in France and Poland. The answer is that the German battle-line extends in reality, though not without breaks, from the Yser to the Tigris. We must strike where the line is most vulnerable.The downfall of Constantinople will almost certainly mean the swift elimination of the Turk as a combatant. The moral effect of such a blow must be incalculable, in more directions than one. Moreover, we shall furnish Russia with that free pathway to the open sea which has become imperatively necessary for her, in order to obtain supplies as the prelude to a further offensive. As we pointed out a fortnight ago, the first and greatest task of the Western Allies remains, as heretofore, in France and in Flanders. Nothing that is done elsewhere must be allowed to distract attention from the primary duty of driving the Germans back to the Rhine and beyond. But the passage of the Dardanelles will bring us nearer to that end, because it will narrow the issue to that siege of Germany upon which the outcome of the war will eventually depend.

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100 Years Ago - Salonika

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SALONIKA

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BRITISH TRENCH ON A SHRUB·CQVERED HILL

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ROAODMAKING NEAR SALONIKA, ENLIVENED BY THE PLAYING OF A REGIMENTAL BAND

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OFFICERS' MESS AT A NEW CAMPING-PLACE

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/keeping-cool-at-salonika-tp6phv50w

Keeping cool at Salonika

The troops are authorized now to do all work in shirt-sleeves and shorts.

July 10, 1916

The daily activity of the artillery on the frontier was diversified today by an attempted German aeroplane attack on the French positions south of Doiran. One of the enemy machines which came under the fire of the French anti-aircraft batteries was brought down and fell in flames near the lake.

The rather novel Idea of a summer holiday for the troops in the field is being realized by the French during the prevailing heat, which, in treeless Macedonia, is very severely felt. Officers commanding units which are away from the frontier are ordered to arrange for ten men to have ten days’ suspension of work so that, while remaining, of course, with their regiments. all in turn will be allowed to knock off for that length of time and to live under conditions of agreeable repose, reading novels, smoking cigarettes and playing cards, as if they were staying at a holiday camp in peacetime. With proper organization the work of the various units will be carried on just the same, and there is no doubt that the measure will greatly benefit the health of the men.

It is an insidious characteristic of the climate of Salonika that in a hot summer like this it has most of the characteristics of the tropics, but, owing to its being situated in Europe, life is conducted as if nothing more torrid were to be expected than an English June. Sun-helmets, smoked spectacles puggarees, and light drill clothes, have all had to be adopted as the thermometer has climbed relentlessly higher.

The troops are authorized now to do all work in shirt-sleeves and shorts, and though it seemed curious at first to even sergeant-majors with collarless grey shirts wide open at the neck and the badges of their rank taken off their tunic and loosely tacked onto the arm, the effect on the whole is quite workmanlike.

For the troops at the base there is a great compensation in this weather, sea-bathing. The waters of this tideless Gulf, after receiving the refuse of scores of transports and warships for eight or nine months, make the Thames off Woolwich quite pellucid in comparison: but nevertheless the sea every afternoon has a pink fringe of bathing Tommies. Up-country men have in many places dug small plunge baths alongside the fast-dwindling streams, for the cleanliness of the English soldier is inveterate and is the standing marvel of the native people, whose personal ablutions often cease entirely with the bath given them at baptism. Lucky are the troops stationed near fresh cool waters

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